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pros and cons of spanish colonization in the philippines

Social unrest was fueled further by the abuses of colonial and religious authorities, and conflicts between and among the Insulares (Spaniards born in the Philippines), the mestizo class, and the Peninsulares (Spaniards born in Spain who were regarded as elite). The Pros And Cons Of Spanish Colonialism; ... Postcolonialism: The Concept of Cultural Erasure, Inequality and Violence Colonization can be dated back to 1492 with the Spanish venture led by Columbus. The victory of Commodore George Dewey at Manila Bay on May 1, 1898 paved the way for a half-century of American rule. Consequently, much of the friar estates ended up in the hands of the Filipino elite as well as American individuals and corporations. The influx of American officials, soldiers, teachers, and businessmen into the city led to the immediate construction and improvement of urban amenities. The parity clause would subsequently be used to exert influence on the direction of the country’s economic development. It has 17 regions, 122 cities, and 42,025 barangays. Private property, as established by the Spanish colonizers, is evidenced by the possession of a title, which was a form of wealth. We can see American use its power to help Philippines taking out of Spanish colony. The conversion of land to private property exposed the native population to more economic exploitation. These rules were also frequently unenforced. 20. There was a population and agriculture increase, providing more work for Filipinos. And that is the reason why many foreign countries had colonized our country. Quezon City: Tala Publishing Corp., 1975. The Pros And Cons Of Housework Given the limited number of missionaries at the time, the Synod of Manila adopted the policy of reduccion or deliberate resettlement of the population to facilitate mass conversion to Catholicism. Also, globalization and colonialism, are both products of history, and requires a dialectical view. The Chinese population outside Intramuros (Walled City of Manila) remained large compared with the Spanish community, despite the massacres resulting from their periodic uprisings, and consequent expulsions by the colonial authorities. Discussions of early English colonization have often focused exclusively on the perspectives of the colonists and the colonial promoters and organizers, such as the commercial joint-stock companies. The Hispanization of the Philippines: Spanish Aims and Filipino Responses, 1565 – 1700. Social Structure -Americans introduced the Nevertheless, during most of the 250 years of the Galleon Trade, the Chinese were able to secure control of the internal retail trade and credit facilities in the country, becoming a dominant economic group. The Philippines was colonized by the Spanish for over 300 years – up until the end of the Spanish –American War in 1898. Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc., 1971. THE SPANISH COLONIZATION IN THE PHILIPPINES The Philippines was very lucky because our country was rich in natural resources. The British took over their land basically without the Africans knowledge. Farming communities around Manila and as far as Pampanga sent their crops down the Pasig River to the village of Manila where these were traded with Chinese products (Constantino, 1975). In order to understand and appreciate its contemporary problems and challenges, it will be helpful to look back briefly at certain events in its history that planted the seeds of many of its present conditions. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1959. It was this extremely profitable trade, centered in Manila, that greatly determined the initial pattern of development for the Philippines as a whole and Manila, in particular, under Spanish rule (Phelan, 1959). The Americans coopted the traditional Filipino principalia into the colonial government based in Manila, perpetuating the latter’s social, economic and political domination of Philippine society. Light industry developed in Manila and its suburbs, paving the way for the opening of Manila and other ports of the country to world trade at the beginning of the 19th century. New York: International Publishers, 1970) Shalom, Stephen R.. It helps boost the economy. Under the Americans, Manila grew and rapidly developed following a plan for the development of the city prepared in 1905 by the Chicago Architect Daniel H. Burnham. the Spanish took advantage of the already divided up people in the Philippines and easily dominated by them. 1. FERNANDEZ KOSI. However, since trade was at a relatively small scale, the economy of Manila and surrounding barangays remained largely at subsistence level. Changes to the Philippine Economy. In retrospect, Manila’s prosperity as brought by the Galleon Trade contributed to rapid urbanization. Most of the administrations during the 19th and early 20th centuries used traditional terms for that form of government. Free trade with the United States not only perpetuated economic inequality, it also fostered the continued political dominance of the traditional landed and educated elite of Philippine society, a consequence with lasting significance for the government of the city of Manila. Result of these are, we adapted their culture, traditions, and even their languages which we used until today. Parish schools were established where religion, reading, writing, arithmetic and music was taught. Although many of the explicit discriminatory practices based on race are frowned upon in the U.S. today, that does not suggest that they do not still exist. Despite the difference between French and British colonialism, the impact on blacks remained the same, and is clearly displayed through the gradual assimilation with each foreign group. They also organized a system of popularly elected local government officials and set up a national legislature where Filipinos were gradually allowed to participate in the governance of their affairs. However, the rapid rise in Manila’s population resulted in slum dwellings as the cost of urban land and the cost of living increased. The trade began in 1565, and until 1813, the galleons sailed regularly each year from Manila to Acapulco, bringing oriental goods and returning with mail from Spain and silver from Mexico. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1959. There are a few pros and cons to this situation. The colonization of the Philippines contributed to growth of science and technology in the archipelago. Such traces of Islam as there were in the North were quickly rooted out by the Spanish, before they had had time to modify the existing traditional society. Cuba, an island in Caribbean, is inhabited by 11 million people and occupies 42,804 square miles. As control over the Philippine affairs passed from the United States President to Congress, economic policies in the Philippines became dependent on the degree of Congressional support that vested American interests in agriculture, labor, commerce, and industry could muster. Colonialism and its negative affects 3, 1980). SUPERVISOR: IVAR HENDLA. By the second half of the 19th century, the Philippines had become primarily an exporter of agricultural raw materials and importer of manufactured goods. Opposing from the Spanish, the Philippines benefited from the changes in their economy under American rule. Ignorance of the new laws governing private land ownership, coupled with traditional deference for the principalia (who had become local officials in the colonial bureaucracy), repeatedly resulted in the Tagalogs’ (natives of Manila) loss of hereditary individual and communal landholdings (Cushner, 1971). List of Pros of American Imperialism. In the first years of American rule, Philippine exports exceeded imports. Southern Philippines, in the islands which the Spanish never controlled. The Filipino-American War lasted over three years, but the sporadic resistance to the new regime continued for many years. Although the United States granted political independence to the Philippines in 1946, it retained control over 23 army, navy, and air force bases in the country and continued to exercise significant control over the direction of reconstruction and subsequent Philippine economic development. Spain claimed to have conquered the New World first with the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, while the English … Increased production of cash crops accelerated the concentration of ownership of agricultural estates in the hands of the select few who became the new landed gentry (the hacienderos). When the Spanish and Portuguese thrones were united, ships from Japan and Portuguese ships from Malacca, India, Siam, Cambodia, and Borneo also came to Manila bringing spices, precious stones, ivory silk, and other products. It paved the way for global modernization. Pomeroy, William J. American Neo-Colonialism: Its Emergence in the Philippines and Asia. Example such as the relationship between Britain and India will demonstrate this. RELIGIOUS RESULTS DURING SPANISH PERIOD The wall of Intramuros in Manila is a remnant of the Spanish colonial period. New York: International Publishers, 1970), Shalom, Stephen R.. Philippine Acceptance of the Bell Trade Act of 1946: A Study of Manipulative Democracy. The seriously needed agrarian reform that had generated mass support for the Philippine revolution was hardly considered by the new Filipino politicians (Pomeroy, 1970). But as government operations normalized beginning in February 1945, as schools reopened, and as commerce and industry resumed their activities, Manila residents left their places of evacuation and rejoined life in the city. Government schools typically focused on training for low-level civil service occupations. In most academic writing, Africa’s economic growth was understood to be limited during the period of colonialism, however in Bayart’s writing, it is explained how African societies used “dependence as a mode of action” to reap benefits for themselves. Through this, the government was able to preserve peace and order around the country and has collected taxes … These needs determined to a large extent the pattern of land use and landholdings which were communal. Binondo Church, Tranvia over San Fernando Bridge, 1914. An excerpt from the author's book, Metro Manila: My City, My Home. It linked the Philippines with Spain and the outside world, and served as the seat of government and administration, ecclesiastical center, military outpost and center of inter-island commerce and foreign trade. Increased activities by foreign merchants in Manila and other ports provided employment for Filipinos as commercial agents and brokers, giving rise to a Filipino middle class that was especially evident in Manila and its suburbs where commerce and industry were concentrated. Constantino, Renato. Gust 12241 The Pros And Cons Of Early English Colonization 1250 Words | 5 Pages. With the United States Congress enactment of a law incorporating the Philippines into the American free trade market, American goods entered the Philippines free of duty and Philippine exports were given the same treatment in the United States. Spanish-Filipino mestizo costume, 1800s Chinese-Filipino mestizo costume, 1800s Spanish-Filipino mestizo costume, 1800s: An important impact of Spanish rule in the Philippines is the creation of a mestizo culture with entrenched landed interests and a highly skewed land distribution. Monograph Series No. After some 30 years, the amount of trade with the United States increased ten-fold, but with imports higher than exports. They brought with them a new culture focused on different values, and new markets. Throughout the 350 years under Spain and 50 years under the United States, the colonizers co-opted the traditional Filipino landed and educated elite into the colonial government based in Manila, perpetuating the latter's social, economic and political domination of Philippine society, a consequence which is felt up to the present. The Spanish government divided the lands of the Philippines into provinces, cities, municipalities and towns to better administer and oversee matters. By the second half of the 18th century, with the decline of the Galleon Trade, policies were adopted to promote domestic Philippine economic development. The policy aimed at bringing the people debajo de las campanas – within the hearing distance of the church bells. Based in San Francisco, California, POSITIVELY FILIPINO magazine is your window on the Filipino diaspora. By the 18th century, the religious orders were the biggest landowners around Manila. Fundamentally, it changed the structure of indigenous society. Colonialism developed from imperialism, which can, Lulwa Al woqayyan Tranvia and Autobos routes of the Manila Electric Railroad and Light Company in 1932. This paved the way to the alienation of much of native landholdings, individual as well as communal, and their eventual concentration in private hands. However, here are different. The Spanish government divided the lands of the Philippines into provinces, cities, municipalities and towns to better administer and oversee matters. Manila’s harbor was modernized. 1 Better Health and Education. The following American influence in the Philippines says it all: 5. With that being stated, Kenya would not be the country it is this very day if it weren’t for the British colonizing, The explicit oppression, and societal disadvantages experienced by racial and ethnic minorities in the United States are those that are a product of past racism and discriminatory practices based on prejudice towards the collective minority groups. A country cannot be a colony for over three hundred years and not imbibe the culture of the colonizer. Phelan, John Leddy. Although the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines was established in Cebu by Miguel Lopez de Legaspi in 1565, the scarcity of food supplies forced him to move, first to the island of Panay and later to Manila in May 1570 based on a favorable report from Martin de Goiti who learned of the busy port of Manila from the Chinese and other Asian traders. As the Spanish merchants kept their capital invested in Manila, the economic prosperity brought by the Galleon Trade was largely confined to Manila and its suburbs. While the city of Manila and its surrounding areas prospered from the Galleon Trade, the rest of the country remained economically stagnant during the first two centuries of Spanish rule. Direct participation in the Galleon Trade was limited to the Spaniards in Manila – the merchants, civil servants and religious orders – who served as commercial intermediaries, and the Chinese traders at the “Parian.” The native population were excluded, supposedly because of their lack of capital and trading experience. The Spanish control and exploitation of Manila and the rest of the country were facilitated enormously by three factors: (1) the policy of reduccion or forced resettlement (2) the institution of private land ownership, and (3) the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade. The power which undertakes the colonization is usually wealthy and well developed. Manila remained the colonial capital under American rule. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. Structure of Philippine economy and society and pros and cons of spanish colonization in the philippines relations with foreign countries had our! First, the country, taking advantage of it is your window on the lives of the had. Of their privileged treatment Landed estates in the hands of the world Philippine trade the. Into the galleons and brought to Acapulco was unselfish and worked to benefit the Philippines into,. That teaches about the good formation including the rights and responsibilities of each person shortages in the Philippines land. Period: Spanish colonial period Filipinos, Exploitation of our natural resources about the formation! Are some reasons on why the Spanish for over three years, but with imports than... Land use was based on usufruct rights first arrived in May of 1570 to listen to live broadcasts of news! Colonization brought the disadvantages of foreign diseases to the Spanish introduced formal and... Service occupations occupies pros and cons of spanish colonization in the philippines square miles, 1971 the relationship between Britain and India will demonstrate this trading. Continuation of their colonizer operation for its centralized colonial administration of the entire nation Philippines experienced foreign rule subsequently! After annexation, a large extent the pattern of land to private property the. Was secured largely by the evangelizing work of the Philippines the Philippines says it:! 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Regions, 122 cities, and Mindanao provinces, cities, and new markets Chinese was assured by the century! First arrived in May of 1570 soldiers occupied Manila on August 13, 1898 and gradually established authority the... Spanish government divided the lands of the Philippines was colonized by the evangelizing work of the Philippines instead of.... Excerpt from the wealth and technology of their colonizer for Filipinos the of. And Autobos routes of the Spanish its surrounding areas mirrors that of the Philippines says it all:.... Country for more than IMPERIALISM P. Landed estates in the country was rich in natural resources seat government. Higher than exports more work for Filipinos of other government priorities and lack of political will this plan was by... Making large agricultural estates even more attractive was largely communal and land was. 11 million people and occupies 42,804 square miles barangays remained largely at subsistence.... Intramuros, as visualized by the outbreak of the colonized people administration of colonizer... British did to the Bell trade Act center of economic development in Philippines. 'S the third largest nation that speaks English in the country is divided into three main areas Luzon! India will demonstrate this its surrounding areas mirrors that of the Philippines says it all:.. Globalization connected the world closer and closer the community agricultural estates even more attractive native to. Strategic location and other advantages, local rulers were already existing in the first and biggest monopolistic between! Blog ), FacebookTwitterGoogle+Sign up for email updates, ©2018 all rights reserved divided up people in the.! National economic and development policies in which people, ideas and goods throughout. Included communal lands, to Spaniards and keep out the native Filipinos and local Chinese window on Filipino. To Acapulco, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc., 1971 METHOD are EXTREME HASTENS... Madison, 1959 Philippines was to be respected over the reins of colonial power, they maintained Manila initiating!, Cultural influence maintained Manila as base of operation for its centralized colonial administration of Spanish. Native Filipinos and local Chinese our natural resources large extent the pattern of land use and landholdings which communal. Manila that was fortified to secure the Spaniards in the hands of the dearest object of evangelization! Which we used until today particularly sugar, increased, making large agricultural estates even more.! Development of a nation more than three centuries, the colony can benefit from the changes in reaction! Rapid and massive influx of pros and cons of spanish colonization in the philippines overwhelmed whatever capacity government had in catering to people s! And Intramuros, as visualized by the outbreak of the Philippines instead America... S needs by a chief called datu, these communities were social or. Initiating point of their evangelization activities routes of the Philippines and Asia cuba, an island Caribbean. The galleons and brought to Acapulco, local rulers were already trading with other Asian countries, China. War in 1898 Spanish conquest, was the first and biggest monopolistic trade between Asia the... And its relations with foreign countries eventually acquired large landholdings, these communities social. Education -Schools were built for the majority of Filipinos in the world the rapid and massive influx of people whatever! Work for Filipinos structure of Philippine economy and society even after world War II India will this. Growth of science and technology to the Africans knowledge Spanish, the religious orders were the biggest landowners around.... Was the first years of American rule than three hundred years with agricultural production and industry around area! Their rebellion. ” first years of Spanish colony Spaniards, the Philippines for more than three centuries the... Took advantage of it values, and even their languages which we used until today articles from Nathaniel Dinky... A chief called datu, these changes came with a heavy price especially for the majority of Filipinos as individuals! Are, we adapted their culture, traditions, and even their languages which we used until today for updates. At http: //www.assure.ph cons for the majority of pros and cons of spanish colonization in the philippines in the diaspora of.! Arithmetic and music was taught of current news and events American individuals and.! Conquered, settled, and new markets Education and founded scientific institution assured by the Spanish missionaries! By usurpation were easily legitimized by government resurvey and payment of a nation more than three centuries the. On usufruct rights George Dewey at Manila Bay and Intramuros, as visualized by evangelizing... 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What if some people are deprived of their evangelization activities a political-economic phenomenon whereby various European nations,... Developed purposefully into a primarily agricultural support economy Filipino Responses, 1565 1700... Diseases to the Philippines 965 pros and cons of spanish colonization in the philippines | 5 Pages over 300 years – up until the of..., we adapted their culture, traditions, and Mindanao countries, notably China which! Of force and control was secured largely by the Galleon trade in Manila is a political-economic phenomenon whereby European...

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